Centreville, Maryland. Copyright , by Daniel H. MacElrevey and Daniel E. All righcs reserved.
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Centreville, Maryland. Copyright , by Daniel H. MacElrevey and Daniel E. All righcs reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without, written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.
For information, address Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication. MacElrevey, Daniel H.
MacElrevey ; illustrations by Earl R. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1. Ship handling. MacElrevey, Daniel E. M23 Manufactured in the United States of America First edition, Fourth edition, For the shipmates. Shiphandling in a Channel. Use of Tugs. Approaching the Berth. Anchoring and Shiphandling with Anchors. Special Maneuvers. Vessel Operations. Piloting and shiphandling skills have received much greater attention in the years since publication ofthe first edition ofShi ohandling for the Mar- iner.
This is an exciting development for anyone interested in the art and science of moving ships and, by all indications, it is a long-term process that will benefit both mariners and the maritime industry in which they work. This new interest in shiphandling skills has been prompted by several factors including a greater awareness of the impact marine collisions and groundings have on the environment, and new federal legislation and in- ternational conventions affecting ship operation, shipowners' liability for marine casualties, vessel manning, and watch officer training require- ments.
Training is more technology-driven as sophisticated computer- driven simulators become more readily available to teach shiphandling under tutelage ofsenior officers or piloLs. Thanks to the ubiquitous micro- chip, it is possible to provide formal shiphandling, piloting, watchkecping, and bridge resource management training ashore in a classroom environ- ment. Training is particularly important for ship's officers serving aboard larger, more deeply loaded ships on fast turnaround schedules where it is increasingly difficult to accumulate traditional shipboard training, mas- ter to mate to cadet aboard ship.
Merchant Marine Academy, the state maritime academies, the Seamen's Church Institute in New York, and the commer- cial simulator facilities operated by MarineSafety International and oth- ers, are using rapidly evolving simulator technology to provide that training. Simulation has still not reached a level where it replaces hands-on ex- perience, but it is being used effectively for ini'Jal and specialized training and as a forum for experienced mariners to compare techniques and eval- uate their own performance.
More advanced simulators are also being. Discussions of shiphandling have moved from coffee time to class time and the professional is better offfor the change. This fourth edition of Shiphandling for the Mariner is updated to in- clude the latest changes in training and vessel operation.
Chapters on shiphandling training, voyage planning, squat, bridge equipment, and bridge resource management have been expanded.
Larry L. Daggett, Ph. Christian Hewlett, P. Material about new pilot navigation and communications systems, new ship types and propulsion systems, conning ships with omni-directional propulsion systems, and bridge resource man- agement for pilots and shiphandlers have been added. A discussion of pas sive versus active vessel traffic management is included to encourage debate on various traffic management schemes.
A greater understanding of the use of simulation in training—devel- oped while visiting marine and aircraft simulator facilities and reading a two-foot-high stack ofmaterial supplied by the National Research Council Marine Board, plu:?
Changes and suggestions sent to the author by working mariners and instructors at various maritime academies and schools are added with. Hopefully, others will send material for future editions so this text remains as up-to-date and as useful as possible for seagoing pro- fessionals working to improve their shiphandling skills.
Lastly, photographs of new propulsion systems, bridge layouts, navi- gation equipment, hull designs, and upgraded simulators have been added throughout the text. The photographs and new tables showing the latest data on squat and underkeel clearance keep the book current.
Practice maneuvers are again included with the text. The exercises can be used with this book as a self-taught shipboard shiphandling course or, better yet, they can be part of a formal maritime academy or simulator school program.
In any case, training and books can explain the science of shiphandling, but the art is learned by doing. First, I want to thank my son, Captain Daniel E. MacElrevey, an experi- enced mariner and first-class pilot for the Delaware Bay and River. Dan provided the inspiration to again update Shiphandling for the Mariner and collaborated on much of the new material. Now, I hope, the book passes to new hands and another generation ofcontributors who will keep the material fresh and pertinent to the mate, master, or pilot handling ships.
I am very proud to have a son who is successfully following family tra- dition as mariner, shiphandler, and pilot. As everyone who enjoys working on the water already knows, it is more than a profession—it is a rewarding course through life.
Dan, welcome aboard. For the fifth edition, you will have the conn. It is a fact that those who spend their life on or around the water are a special breed. They are always willing to help a shipmate and pass on the seaman's skills from one generation to the next. This is fortunate since no one person can write on a subject as diverse as shiphandling, and only the contributions of others make this book possible.
The marine industry has provided much of the background material and most of the photographs. Acknowledgment is gratefully made of the permissions granted by publishers to quote short passages from their books: Harper and Row and J. Captain Earl McMiliin read every page of previous editions and the new material for this edition. His writing skills and professional expertise as mariner, j ilot, and lawyer helped put the text into readable form while his cartoons make a potentially dry subject a lot more interesting.
Captain Brian Hope also read every page of previous editions and of- fered professional advice between trips on the Chesapeake Bay where he serves as a pilot. He also contributed photos ofsome of his beautiful paint- ings ofmaritime scenes on the Bay.
The fruiLs ofhis much-appreciated la- bors are still an important part of this fourth edition. Contributors to this edition include these same "shipmates" plus Larry L. Christopher Hewlett, P. They have completed in-depth studies on this subject for the Panama Ca- nal, St. The techniques developed by WST have made it possible to study this important area of ship behavior with greater accuracy based on the performance of actual ships in real-life operating conditions in more depth than ever clone before.
He is a past president ofthat association and has been a respected voice for pilots. Paul writes on bridge resource management and shiphandling for masters nnd pilots, and hp teaches techniques for handling ships equipped with Azipods and othei advanced propulsion systems at the RTM STAR Center. His contributions to update this edition are important because the theme of having material prepared by those "who have been there" is an overriding principle of this text since it was first published.
Additional material on simplifying Azipod operation and selecting ba- sic modes lor shiphandling was contributed from lecture notes and inter- views with Captain Joseph Lobo who teaches shiphandling and Azipod systems at the RTM STAR Center. Captain Curtis Fitzgerald who teaches advanced shiphandling at the Maritime Institute for Training and Gradu- ate Studies also provided additional information and photographs on Azipods.
In reality, this text does not represent the thinking of any one person but instead brings together the expertise of many. There would be no Shiphandling for the Mariner without these contributors and the infor- mation gleaned from countless mariners while the authors worked aboard ship as deck officers and pilots. Lastly, a continued special thanks to Carolyn, my wife and shipmate in life, for her support, help, and patience. Only those who have been in- volved in a project such as this can understand why the author invariably expresses these sentiments.
The ability to handle a ship, especially in confined waters, is one of the most demanding and satisfying of the mariner's. It is a skill both an old as the first ship and as new as the latest vessel to be launched, yet little written material is available to the professional seafarer on shiphandling and much of what is available is either sparse or inaccurate. Hopefully, this volume will help to fill that void so the master, mate, naval olficer, and Coast Guard officer will be able to gain some insight into the tech- niques used bv the skilled shiphandler or pilot to move a vessel to her berth.
No master or mate of any type ofvessel can be considered a fully quali- fied mariner unless he can handle that ship in a competent and seaman- like manner. While it certainly is not possible for the seaman to read this short book and then do the work of a pilot who has spent years refining shiphandling skills, the book will at least help mari- ners to better understand the handling of ships. Until recently, little significant stuuy was done on the behavior of large ships in shallow water.
The science ofhydrodynamics is now being applied to shiphandling and much is being learned that will allow the seaman to better predict a ship's behavior. Ships do respond in a predict- able manner to the forces 01'wind, sea, and current, so these studies arc- important. So many variables and so many learned techniques are involved when actually handling ships that shiphandling remains more art than science—and this book's non- mathematical presentation, stressing application over theory, reflects that fact.
No single volume can possibly cover all the conditions that will 1. Years of experience are needed before the shiphandler can. Shiphandling is a learned art and it is only possible to give a background upon which to build the necessary skills. A sincere effort has been made to separate fact from fiction and all that is contained herein is based upon actual experiences of practicing pilot.
There are too many myths about shiphan- dling, espec ially in the use of anchors and the behavior of ships in narrow channels, and where th : s volume differs from commonly held opinion those differences are based upon the experiences of mariners who have performed such evolutions hundreds of times. It is lime to replace the myths, born more of an overactive imagination than of experience, with facts that are applicable to today's ships and conditions.
Further, this text is written for tne practicing mariner who already possesses some degree of professional knowledge, experience, and training In navigation and sea- manship. Material that is not original has been credited to its source but the bulk of this information has been gleaned from the community of seamen and has been passed along from master to mate, pilot to apprentice. It is not possible to credit that information to any single source. The assistance of the many mariners and pilots who reviewed this material is appreciated and the unselfish manner in which they donated both their time and ex- pertise is indicative of what makes the community of the soa different from that of other professions.
Just as a voyage is a natural progression ofevents from departure to fi- nal arrival at a port ofdestination, so too is this book organized to follow a vessel and her officers from the time she is preparing for arrival until she is again back at sea.
Shiphandling For The Mariner 4TH ED
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