THEODOLITE TRAVERSING PDF

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Traverse Surveying is a popular method of surveying. This article includes the definition of traverse surveying along with its classification, errors in traversing, checks, the completed method of traversing and plotting of traverse survey.

Traversing is that type of survey in which a number of connected survey lines form the framework and the directions and lengths of the survey lines are measured with the help of an angle measuring instrument and tape or chain respectively. The closed traverse is suitable for locating the boundaries of lakes, woods, etc and for a survey of large areas.

There are several methods of traversing, depending on the instruments used in determining the relative directions of the traverse lines. The following are the principal methods:. The method in which the whole work is done with chain and tape is called chain traversing. No angle measurement is used and the directions of the lines are fixed entirely by linear measurements Angles fixed by linear or tie measurements are known as chain angles.

The method is unsuitable for accurate work and is generally used if an angle measuring instruments such as a compass, sextant or theodolite is available. In chain and compass traversing, the magnetic bearings of the survey lines are measured by a compass and the lengths of the lines are measured either with a chain or with a tape.

The direction of the magnetic meridian is established at each traverse station independently. The method is also known as a tree or loose needle method.

The method in which the magnetic bearings of traverse lines are measured by a theodolite fitted with s compass is called traversing by fast needle method.

The direction of the magnetic meridian is not established at each station but instead, the magnetic bearings of the lines are measured with a reference so that direction of the magnetic meridian established at the first station. There are three methods of observing the bearings of lines by fast needle method.

In this method, the angles between the lines are directly measured by a theodolite and the magnetic bearing of other lines can be calculated in this method.

The angles measured at different stations may be either. The method consists simply in measuring each angle directly from a back sight on the preceding station. The angled may also be measured by repetition.

The angles measured from the back station may be interior or exterior depending on the direction of progress. In Fig a the direction of progress is counter-clockwise and so the angles measured clockwise are the interior angle.

In Fig a the direction of progress is clockwise and so the angles measured clockwise are the exterior angle. A deflection angle is an angle in which a survey line makes with the prolongation of the preceding line. It is designated as right R or left L as it is measured clockwise or anti-clockwise from the prolongation of the previous line. This type of traversing is more suitable for the survey of roads, railways, pipe-lines, etc where the survey lines make small deflection angles.

No direct checks of angular measurement are available. So indirect checks can be made. As illustrated in Fig a the addition to the observation of bearing of AB at station A, bearing of AD can also be measured. Similarly, at D, the bearing of DA can be measured and check applied. Another method, which furnishes a check when work is plotted is shown as in Fig b and consists of reading the bearing to any prominent point P from each of the consecutive stations.

The check-in plotting consists in laying off the lines AP, BP, CP, etc and noting whether the lines pass through one point. Popular Topics. Construction Equipment. Open Channel. Soil Mechanics. What is Civil Engineering? Civil vs Structural engineering. Civil Engineering Quotes. Interview Questions. Please note that the information in Civiltoday. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services.

Cement Hydraulic Cement. Bridge Building Equipment Wall. Definition Traversing is that type of survey in which a number of connected survey lines form the framework and the directions and lengths of the survey lines are measured with the help of an angle measuring instrument and tape or chain respectively.

Types of Surveying There are two types of traverse surveying. They are: Closed traverse : When the lines form a circuit which ends at the starting point, it is known as a closed traverse. Open traverse: When the lines form a circuit ends elsewhere except starting point, it is said to be an open traverse.

Suitability The closed traverse is suitable for locating the boundaries of lakes, woods, etc and for a survey of large areas. Methods of Traversing There are several methods of traversing, depending on the instruments used in determining the relative directions of the traverse lines. Chain Traversing The method in which the whole work is done with chain and tape is called chain traversing.

Direct method with transiting, Direct method without transiting, Back bearing method. The angles measured at different stations may be either Included Angles and Deflection Angles.

Linear Error and Angular Error The most satisfactory method of checking the linear measurements consists in chaining each survey line a second time, preferably in the reverse direction on different dates and by different parties.

In the figure, the latitude and the departure of the line AB of length l and reduced bearing q are given by. Surveying What is Surveying? Civil Engineering. Disclaimer Please note that the information in Civiltoday. Subscribe Us To get regular update and new article notification please subscribe us. B and quadrant.

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What is theodolite? Theodolite part, survey, Traversing

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The traditional use has been for land surveying , but they are also used extensively for building and infrastructure construction , and some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching. It consists of a moveable telescope mounted so it can rotate around horizontal and vertical axes and provide angular readouts. These indicate the orientation of the telescope, and are used to relate the first point sighted through the telescope to subsequent sightings of other points from the same theodolite position. These angles can be measured with great accuracy, typically to milliradian or seconds of arc. From these readings a plan can be drawn, or objects can be positioned in accordance with an existing plan. The modern theodolite has evolved into what is known as a total station where angles and distances are measured electronically, and are read directly to computer memory. In a transit theodolite, the telescope is short enough to rotate through the zenith , otherwise for non-transit instruments vertical or altitude , rotation is restricted to a limited arc.

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Traverse Surveying is a popular method of surveying. This article includes the definition of traverse surveying along with its classification, errors in traversing, checks, the completed method of traversing and plotting of traverse survey. Traversing is that type of survey in which a number of connected survey lines form the framework and the directions and lengths of the survey lines are measured with the help of an angle measuring instrument and tape or chain respectively. The closed traverse is suitable for locating the boundaries of lakes, woods, etc and for a survey of large areas. There are several methods of traversing, depending on the instruments used in determining the relative directions of the traverse lines. The following are the principal methods:.

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