Abbas, K. Elsevier Science and Elsevier Imprim. Abeledo, C. Aherne, F. Nutrition of optimizing breeding herd performance.

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The main part of this book was written in the early nineties in Cuba, in the midst of a drastic and devastating cut-back in the importation of cereals and protein supplements destined for animal production. Also, while animal production and productivity decreased, animal mortality drastically increased. This was a fortuitous accident because the new economic situation left the author more convinced than ever of the need to develop a simple and farmer-friendly pig production system for the island.

It became a personal challenge and objective, and re-enforced a previous held observation about small-size pig operations in the Caribbean, and perhaps generally in the tropics, that most pig farmers just want an economic result, but with locally-available resources, and will gladly accept a feeding system entailing a lower biological performance if only their pigs grow. If the following ideas are valid for other pig producers in the tropics, then the objective shall have been achieved.

Pigs in the tropics, between 50 and kg, do not have to eat 3. Actually, most pigs in the tropics probably grow at half this rate. The information set out in Table 1 suggests that in the tropics there are a surprising number of potential and viable sources of energy that might be used, in fact, several appear even as highly efficient, and even more economically attractive, than the cereal-based system.

The other fact is that cereals, or grains, are becoming scarcer, therefore more expensive, and soon may be prohibitive for industrial producers of pork, even in temperate zones. In this regard, in a recent article related to facing food scarcity, it was emphasized that world grain production, after tripling from to , has not gained at all since , largely because crops cannot effectively use more fertilizer.

In fact, land is slowing losing its productivity. This, in addition to the fact that 90 million people are added to the global population each year, and that grain normally accounts for half of human caloric intake, could mean that conventional, grain-based livestock production systems will eventually require modification Brown When using conventional grain-based rations for pigs, approximately one-half of the protein comes from the cereal component Chapter 3.

However, in the case of the feeding systems referred to in Table 1 in which the energy and protein components are offered separately Preston and Murguecitio , due to the invariable low level of protein in the basal diet, almost all the essential amino acids must be supplied by the supplement. Preston has argued that this could be an advantage because:. An additional consideration now under study is that a faster growth rate, per se, one which would invariably involve feeding a biological optimum supply of dietary protein is not necessarily the most profitable.

The authors of the information presented in Table 2, reporting the results of similar types of experiments carried out in different countries but using different energy sources, have, in their respective papers, pointed out this important aspect.

The following are protein supplements both computer and non-computer designed! The supplement was: soybean meal, One shovelful, twice daily, of cooked chicken heads and guts fed with free-choice diluted B molasses in Trinidad and Tobago FAO, Approximately one kilogram, twice daily, of fish silage Chapter 6 fed with fresh cassava in the rainy season and fresh cane juice in the dry season author's personal experience in Cuba.

At press, the system shown in Fig. As a system, it is very versatile, since excess or older forage can be sun-dried and used as hay for rabbits or ruminants. After eight or nine. The length of the rows corresponds to the number of pigs to feed; for instance, 10 pigs might require plots of meter length rows.

Since then, it has been shown that free-choice sugar cane juice and a restricted amount of a protein supplement can be used for pigs, while the cane tops, the pressed cane stalks, a controlled amount of protein forage and free-choice molasses-urea blocks can be used for feeding ruminants.

An average amount of 28 kg of whole sugar cane was chopped and used solely as ruminant feed or pressed to extract the juice for pigs before the stalks and tops were fed to a group of heifers.

The pigs received a daily average of 0. In addition, they consumed 0. The control whole cane diet, also fed to heifers, consisted of 28 kg of chopped, whole sugar cane, in addition to the same ingredients fed to the heifers on the experimental ration.

Molina et al. Recently, in Cambodia, it has been shown that palm sugar juice can be used to feed pigs, similar to the use of sugar cane juice for pigs in Vietnam Bui Huy Nhu Phuc et al. Because the production of palm sugar is basically from December to June in Cambodia, it might be interesting to group-breed the sows so as to produce a sizable number of weaned piglets to correspond with the beginning of the palm juice season, similar to the proposal in the first chapter of this book using cane juice.

The ADG was almost grams Preston Another problem is that where bananas are grown generally there are limited amounts of other protein resources, it's really only bananas. With the present tightened economic situation, meaning less gasoline, fewer trucks and tires, in addition to the new and promising use of soybean forage as a protein supplement Chapter 2 , this situation is rapidly changing.

The present idea involves setting up small pig fattening units, in the middle of the banana plantations, adjacent to the weighing and grading stations; one pig pen is enclosed and used as a banana ripening room. The protein is planted alongside: plots of soybeans Fig. The proposed daily diet for pigs between 30—90 kg is 8—10 kg of ripe bananas and 4—5 kg 10—15 plants or one meter of soybean forage in milk-stage prior to the expression of the trypsin inhibitor. The list of alternative feed resources for pigs in the tropics would not be complete without mentioning the recent and fascinating new contributions from Colombian researchers on the use of different products from the African oil palm for pigs, including perhaps, in the case of the farmer with one or two palms, the use of the whole fruit.

The concept is similar to the use of sugarcane products fresh juice, molasses, scums, low-grade sugar fed free-choice along with a restricted amount of protein supplement, in fact, no doubt, the sugar cane path to tropical pig sustainability helped open the door to the use of the African palm.

It has now been shown that a restricted amount, g, of a soybean meal-based supplement together with free-choice oil-press fiber Ocampo et al. Brown, L. Facing Food Searcity. World Watch Vol. Effect of protein level in reconstituted sugar cane juice-based diets for growing pigs. Preston, B. Cervantes, A. Ganado Porcino Dominguez, P. La Habana, Cuba. Estrella, J. FAO , FAO, Rome. Ganado Porcino 7 4 — Maner, J. Mena, A.

Molina, C. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Nutrient Requirement of Swine, 9th revised ed. National Academy Press, Washington. Ocampo, A. Raw palm oil as the energy source in pig fattening diets and Azolla filiculoides as a substitute for soya bean meal.

Preston, T. Fractionation of sugarcane for feed and fuel. In: Sugarcane as feed. Sansoucy, G. Aarts and T. Preston Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic pp — R Tropical animal feeding: a manual for research workers.

Strategy for sustainable livestock production in the tropics. Sarria, P. Solis, J. Acapulco, Mexico. Speedy, A. A comparison of sugar cane juice and maize as energy sources in diets for growing pigs with equal supply of essential amino acids. Eradication of hog cholera and African swine fever, E F S.

Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse control, E F. Mediterranean cattle and sheep in crossbreeding, E F. The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, E F. Declining breeds of Mediterranean sheep, E F.

Slaughterhouse and slaughterslab design and construction, E F S. Treating straw for animal feeding, C E F S. Packaging, storage and distribution of processed milk, E. The African trypanosomiases, E F. Open yard housing for young cattle, Ar E F S.

Prolific tropical sheep, E F S. Feed from animal wastes: state of knowledge, C E. Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. General study, E F. Country studies, E F. Disease control in semen and embryos, C E F S. Animal genetic resources - conservation and management, C E. Reproductive efficiency in cattle, C E F S. Feed from animal wastes: feeding manual, C E. Haemorrhagic septicaemia, E F. Breeding plans for ruminant livestock in the tropics, E F S.

Off-tastes in raw and reconstituted milk, Ar E F S.


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