Is there a guide anywhere that shows or explains penetration rate of artillery, mortar and indirect. If so can someone message me the FM. Supplies used would be earthenworks native to the area But can supplement with extras. Just wondering again if there is a detailed public FM release on the issue of such things. Thanks, redbull.
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Since post , U. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of the FM in detecting, deterring or preventing a human-borne with bioagent HBBA terrorist breach at an entry control point ECP. The return rate was greater than Consequently, only 26 questionnaires were included in the sample. The results revealed that while over If obtained from appropriate sources and communicated to the personnel at the ECP in an effective or timely manner, the possible effectiveness of certain TTPs in the FM , specifically FM The September 11, attack on the United States and the anthrax incidents that same year are generally agreed to have changed the global and U.
Other cases include the Shigella dysenteriae Type 2 contamination of muffins and donuts in Dallas, Texas, and the and anthrax hoaxes reported in Washington, DC, and Los Angeles, respectively [ 2 — 4 ].
Dudley [ 6 ] reported that between and , a total of cases of tularemia, one of the recognized diseases caused by a bioagent Francisella tularensis a biological agent , were reported in the U. In March in Texas, the 12th cutaneous anthrax case was detected and linked to mail in a Texas laboratory.
In , a total of nine ricin biothreats were reported [ 7 ], while on February 3, , the Dirksen Senate Office Building in Washington, DC, was reported to have discovered ricin in the office of Senator Bill Frist. In April, , letters that tested positive for ricin were reportedly sent to Senator Roger Wicker [ 8 ], and similar letters were also reportedly sent to the President of the United States, Barack Obama, and the then-mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg [ 9 ].
The U. Of these manuals, the FM series is the most specific to biological agent preparation and reactions; thus, it is a focus for critique in this study. There are approximately six different subclasses of this manual, numbered , FM This exposure was anticipated during the invasion of Iraq in and , when SMs were given mandatory antibiotics [ 20 ].
Totten [ 22 ] reported that returning U. As multi-national forces engage in joint missions in regional and global attempts to address conflicts or humanitarian crises, questions are arising about the possible roles the military may play in disseminating diseases in the countries where they are deployed or in the acquisition of diseases from fellow soldiers from other nations during joint deployments [ 23 , 24 ].
Many studies have been conducted by the military in the U. The lack of such an attack does not rule out the future use of such an insidiously deadly form of terrorism to threaten the U. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current DoD FM field manual series, which is specifically designed to prepare for and respond to a biological agent attack, would be effective for detecting, deterring and degrading a terrorist with a BA at a military base ECP.
The target populations selected for this pretest were U. The questionnaire was distributed to respondents in the selected organizations, and a single-blind approach was used to ensure that no direct contact occurred between the respondents and investigator. However, in some situations, there was direct contact between prospective respondents those willing to participate and the investigator, who later offered these respondents hard copies of the questionnaires, along with consent forms.
Electronic copies were also sent to respondents who requested the questionnaire and consent forms in an electronic format. Data from the target population was collected with the validated survey tool. Only those questionnaires that were fully completed or had no more than four missing items and in which the respondents demonstrated knowledge or training on antiterrorism ECP TTPs were accepted for analysis.
This research study focused primarily on military combat settings. It did not reveal or expose details about classified military TTPs, analyze or review specifics of the military TTPs that focus on reaction and recovery from terrorist attacks on combat bases, or reveal exact names of combat bases and their coordinates or the specifics of their activities. The study was limited to the periods witnessed by one of the investigators while on tour of duty in Afghanistan as a force protection vulnerability assessor for the U.
Army Central Command. Only questionnaires that were at least The return rate from those who were willing to participate and signed the consent form was After eliminating those who did not fit the required criteria, 26 questionnaires that could be subjected to analysis remained.
This reluctance ultimately affected the response rate, the number of respondents, and eventually the sample size of this pretest study. This small sample size made it impossible for the researchers to make a broad generalization or inference from the findings of the study. However, it is important to emphasize that the results tend to show that the ECPs of combat FOBs are vulnerable to breach by a terrorist carrying biological agents.
Additionally, these perceptions come from people who have generally been recently deployed and have ECP TTP experiences in a combat environment. Field experience is an important factor in these positions, as individuals who have not been deployed lack the necessary readiness. More than eighty percent In terms of military service branch, Army, Air Force, 4. Navy, and 4. Of this sample, More than ninety-two percent All of the respondents claimed to have had personal knowledge of or training in anti-terrorism.
Slightly more than forty-six percent Additionally, Slightly more than eighty percent More than seventy-six percent Finally, Approximately fifty-five percent Fifty-seven percent Over Fifty percent of the respondents strongly disagreed or disagreed with the statement that soldiers at the ECP had devices, such as the explosive trace detector spray kits employed for improvised explosive devices IEDs that could effectively detect traces of BAs on a person at the ECP.
Similarly, This preresult indicated that The fact that the analysis indicated that over These policies or practices are more reactive in nature, as they are deployed in response to the detected presence of a released bioagent in line with the U.
Usually, PPEs are donned after intelligence has indicated a possible threat, generally in war theater and not necessarily at the ECP, while immunization is performed to prevent infections based on the threat of a specific agent that intelligence has identified. It is striking to note that the respondents claimed that soldiers are not educated regarding searching for BAs at the ECP, nor are they equipped with the necessary devices to detect a BA on a person or a vehicle, such as the equipment employed for IED searches.
While the authors acknowledge the limitations of this study, the perceptions of these respondents remain very authentic because they have firsthand combat ECP TTP experiences. During this study, many of the respondents suggested the need for authorities to educate soldiers about bioterrorism and HBBA terrorists and the need for changes in current ECP TTPs to include procedures that involve searching for BAs. The authors also acknowledges the difficulties that might arise with the development of devices that will effectively detect all BAs; however, the current situation of a complete absence of any BA-deterrent search practices and the use of obsolete biowarfare TTPs, as enumerated in the current FM series, is troubling.
The successful importation of the Ebola virus into Nigeria and the U. Those individuals knew that they were infected, yet lied to the officials at the ECP to enter their intended countries. Those events tend to confirm the feasibility and possibility of an intentional and deliberate transportation of an infectious agent in-borne by humans across borders to cause or spread disease in another country. Similarly, Mr. He lied to officials at the Liberian airport about his prior contact to board an airplane ultimately headed for the U.
The Liberian president was reportedly unhappy with Mr. Duncan returns to Liberia [ 36 ]. There are no longer any illusions regarding the possibility and feasibility of humans becoming carriers of biological agents, and there are no illusions regarding the actions of Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups, who are actively seeking the means to acquire and transport BAs through the U.
Furthermore, the U. We cannot wait for another attack before accepting that this form of terrorism is feasible, as the enemy has proven to be always to be one step ahead. It would be a mistake to confuse biowarfare with bioterrorism; the former requires sophisticated equipment that it is not very necessary in the latter, especially when there are willing volunteers seeking martyrdom.
A successful breach of a U. It would provide an additional route of BA dissemination to the U. This study employed a time-specific, cross-sectional design for the purpose of determining perceptions that are critical to ECP security at a combat post by those who are charged to ensure it. If obtained from proper sources and communicated to the personnel at the ECP in an effective or timely manner, the effectiveness of certain TTPs outlined in the FM - specifically FM This explains how the retired air force colonel described by Hylton 29 was able to get a modified anthrax bacillus into the White House and how an Afghani worker was able to enter an FOB and serve food to soldiers despite having an infectious skin problem.
Authors acknowledge the unquantifiable assistance of the various point of contacts at the military, security or institutions, in the dissemination of the questionnaire and consent forms to willing respondents.
The Contributions of Mrs. Abieyuwa Alakpa, who went with the corresponding author to every possible institution selected for this study and that of James Smith, are here acknowledged. Competing interests. He wrote the manuscripts, initiated contacts for dissemination of questionnaire and analysis of data collected. CJ, he was involved with the reading of the manuscripts, study, with mentoring the corresponding author and providing the support for both analysis and realization of the mission.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. George Edafese Alakpa, Email: moc. John W. Collins, Jr, Email: ude. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Mil Med Res v. Mil Med Res.
Published online Dec George Edafese Alakpa and John W. Collins, Jr. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Joint Forward Operations Base (JFOB) Force Protection Handbook
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Joint Forward Operations Base (JFOB) Force …