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Jump to Page. Search inside document. Al rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of , no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored ina data base retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. Introduction to Digital Microelectronic Circuits by K. Reprinted with permission of the publisher.

PREFACE Of all the new technologies that have evolved in the last few decades, perhaps the digital integrated circuit IC technology is the one that continues to experience a phenomenal growth in terms of overall circuit complexity, switching speed, and power dissipation. This growth has created a pivotal place for teaching digital electronics in the under- graduate electrical and computer engineering curricula.

The vast amount of material arising from innovative circuit designs and newer device technologies, however, requires that the circuit analysis aspects of digital electronics be covered in a first course, separated from device design and chip layout considerations. Since the logic design course covers the building block implementation of a digital system, itis appro- priate that the digital electronics course consider the analysis aspects of these building blocks arising from different technologies, primarily at the circuit level.

A strong back- ground in the analysis and comparative strengths of available technologies, from the circuits point of view, is required to make practical design trade-offs. For a systems architect interested in developing noncustomized systems by interconnecting standard ICs, such a background can be readily developed in a course without the chip or the physical level of design.

Furthermore, with newer IC technologies appearing every few years, a thorough treatment cannot be given in a single course covering both the tech- nologies and the circuit designs. Finally, the availability of computer-aided VLSI design tools still requires the user of these tools to choose the appropriate technology based on the requirements of a given application.

Thus, the circuit level analysis provides an appreciation of the circuit design techniques and equips students for the efficient design of digital systems Subscribing to this philosophy of analyzing digital circuits in a single course, Intro- duction to Digital Microelectronic Circuits covers the basic gates in all of the presently available logic families.

In addition, circuit configurations for VLSI implementation, interfacing of logic families, regenerative logic circuits, analog-digital interfacing, semi- conductor memories, and programmable logic devices are discussed.

Where applicable, design examples based on logic level requirements are presented. PSpice is chosen because of its availability and convenience compared to other simulation tools. Since the basic logic circuits in each family typically have no more than 10 transistors, the student version of MicroSim PSpice, available at no cost from Mi- croSim, can readily handle the analysis. It has been the author's experience that with PSpice and personal computers, students tend to complete the simulation of a circuit and analyze the results more conveniently, and also better appreciate the importance of simulation.

Emphasis is placed on the analysis of IC gates available in the market in each logic family, while theoretical circuit configurations are considered only as possible examples. PREFACE With this emphasis and the laboratory experiments using IC and discrete simulated versions of gates from each family, students gain insight into the relative merits of different circuit configurations in each of the logic families studied Key FEATURES Every attempt has been made to offer a distinctive perspective on the subject of digital microelectronic circuits.

In particular, this boo! Explains thoroughly the implementation of logic gates using different configu- rations of MOS devices.

Gives a balanced treatment of regenerative logic circuits using bipolar and MOS discrete and integrated circuits. Each chapter begins with an introduction and ends with a summary of key points covered, references, review questions, problems, and experiments. Experiments at the end of each chapter are used to extract device parameters for readily available bipolar and MOS devices and to provide an understanding of the performance characteristics of basic logic circuits using these devices.

Chapter 1 outlines the basic steps in the design of a digital system, and the impor- tance of analyzing a system at various levels of design. Ideal and practical logic inverter characteristics are presented. Fundamentals of semiconductors and current conduction mechanisms are described in Chapter 2. Operation and modeling of junction diodes are discussed. Chapter 3 gives a brief description of the structure and operation of bipolar junction transistors BITS.

Chapter 5 presents the analyses of different current mode logic families and their implementations in large-scale integration systems. Simplified models for hand calculations and MicroSim PSpice models are presented for these devices. Multivibrator circuits as a class of sequential circuits are analyzed in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 presents various analog-digital conversion techniques. Chapter 10 provides an introduction to the implementation of bipolar and MOS memories.

Different programmable logic devices are discussed as examples of VLSI systems. AUDIENCE This text is intended for a one-semester, upper-level undergraduate course in electrical and computer engineering Basic knowledge of circuit analysis atthe level ofa first engineering circuit analysis course is assumed.

Introductory level of knowledge in semiconductors and electronics is helpful, but not required. Enough material, however, is included to cover logic device characteristics, currents in semiconductors, and the structure, characteristics, and mod- els of diodes, BJTs, and the FETs.

The course is required for computer engineering and optional for electrical engineering students with a background in basic analog electronic circuits at the diode, BIT, and FET level.

With two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week, all the chapters are covered at least partially. A minimum of 12 laboratory experiments covers the characteristics of devices, logic families, multivibra- tors, and data converters.

Most of the experiments require students to determine the performance characteristics of logic families in the lab and compare them with caleu- lated and simulated results. Currents in a BIT 87 3. Common-Base Characteristics 3. L Gate 5. Astable Multivibrator ROM Address Decoders Programmable Array Logic Devices Programmable Gate Arrays 51 Digital systems are used extensively in all realms of modern life.

We find them in applications ranging from home appliances, entertainment systems, and palmtop computers to health care products, high- speed computers, and communication systems. More and more applications using digital techniques appear every year, with high precision, small size, and low power dissipation.

Analysis of digital electronic circuits is vital to understanding present technologies of microelectronic circuits and to designing these digital systems at all levels of integration. This chapter outlines the design steps and emphasizes the use of computer-aided tools for the analysis and design of complex digital systems. As a first step in the analysis of digital electronic technologies, we examine the performance characteristics of general inverters. The most common discrete form used is the binary, with two disjoint sets of voltage levels representing binary low 0 and high 1 states.

With each voltage level constrained to vary within a specified range, the output of a digital system is predictable over a wide range of operating conditions. Other advantages of digital systems over analog, or linear, systems in which information is repre- sented by continuously varying voltages or currents include ow cost, easy extension of data size, long-time storage capability, and programmability.

Digital systems use electronic circuits that operate, most commonly, as switches, with open switch position designated as logic, or binary, 1 or high , and closed position as 0 or low. Alternatively, the output of a digital electronic circuit may be one of two well-defined ranges of voltages or currents for the two logic states.

Semiconductor diodes and transistors are used as switching devices in digital systems, also called logic or switching systems. Microelectronics refers to the technology of fabricating a large number of electronic devices on a single chip of silicon or a compound semiconductor material such as gallium arsenide The size of the active transistor area in chips has progressively decreased to about 0.

This remarkable increase in performance along with decrease in size is due primarily to advances in the technology of the semiconductor device fabrication process, and to the development of innovative circuit configurations.

In the following section we consider the steps in the design of a digital system. As we will see, for the more complex of these applications, two more steps may also be needed before the final fabrication step. As with any system, the first step in the design is the detailed specification of the requirements of the system. In this step, the design engineer determines the required number and voltage levels of inputs and outputs, speed of perfor- mance, range of power supply, physical size, and operating environment.

At this phase, the system is described in terms of abstract blocks, which, when interconnected, simulate the intended behavior for the given input and initial conditions. The goal in this phase is to establish the required building blocks and their intercon- nections to meet the gross operational specifications of the system. This step is also called the architecture, or register level design, particularly when referring to computer design.

The design at this step represents the behavioral, or input- output, model of the system. Currently, we describe and specify the behavioral model in an abstract language such as Verilog or VHDL. While some of the blocks may be available as off-the-shelf components, others must be realized from basic elements.

A divide-by-N counter, or an N bit sequence detector, for exam- ple, may not be available directly for any given value of N. A logic designer carries out the logic design of such blocks in this phase, as well as the interfacing, of each block with others, if necessary.

This is the primitive level of design, where one chooses the applicable technology for each functional as well as logic block, based on such considerations as power, size, and speed.

In this step, all the blocks identified in the previous steps are interconnected with appropriate power and signal sources. A test engineer validates the completed system by supplying or simulating the specified inputs and monitoring the outputs from the system.

The above process for a system design assumes the use of readily available, off-the-shelf components: at the logic design level, small-scale integration SSI circuits for gates and flip-flops, and, at the functional level, medium-scale integration MSI circuits such as counters and shift-registers, and, in some cases, large-scale integration LSI circuits, such as memory and logic arrays.?

How- ever, the process has several limitations for use in applications where size and power dissipation are also primary considerations.

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## K. Gopal Gopalan - Introduction to Digital Microelectronic Circuits (1996)(1)

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## Introduction to digital electronic circuits

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