COMPUTER ORGANIZATION BY L KRISHNANANDA PDF

Directorate of Distance Education. LPU is reaching out to the masses by providing an intellectual learning environment that is academically rich with the most affordable fee structure. Supported by the largest University 1 in the country, LPU, the Directorate of Distance Education DDE is bridging the gap between education and the education seekers at a fast pace, through the usage of technology which significantly extends the reach and quality of education. DDE aims at making Distance Education a credible and valued mode of learning by providing education without a compromise. DDE is a young and dynamic wing of the University, filled with energy, enthusiasm, compassion and concern.

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Directorate of Distance Education. LPU is reaching out to the masses by providing an intellectual learning environment that is academically rich with the most affordable fee structure.

Supported by the largest University 1 in the country, LPU, the Directorate of Distance Education DDE is bridging the gap between education and the education seekers at a fast pace, through the usage of technology which significantly extends the reach and quality of education. DDE aims at making Distance Education a credible and valued mode of learning by providing education without a compromise.

DDE is a young and dynamic wing of the University, filled with energy, enthusiasm, compassion and concern. Its team strives hard to meet the demands of the industry, to ensure quality in curriculum, teaching methodology, examination and evaluation system, and to provide the best of student services to its students.

DDE is proud of its values, by virtue of which, it ensures to make an impact on the education system and its learners. Through affordable education, online resources and a network of Study Centres, DDE intends to reach the unreached. Objectives: The objectives of this course are:. Review of Basics of Digital Electronics: Codes, logic gates, flip flops, registers, counters, multiplexer, demultiplexer, decoder, and encoder.

Hardwired vs. Multiprocessors: Characteristics, Interconnection Structures, Interprocessor Communication and synchronization. Tools for course understanding: Awareness of ISA bus interface, a popular bus architecture used in IBM and compatible personal computer systems.

Register Transfer and Micro-operations: Register transfer language, Register transfer, Bus and memory transfers — three state bus buffers, Arithmetic micro-operations — binary adder, binary adder subtractor, binary incrementer, arithmetic circuit. Logic micro-operations and its hardware implementation, Shift micro-operations and hardware implementation, Arithmetic Logic Shift unit, Hardware description languages.

Basic Computer Organization and Design: Instruction Codes, Stored program organization, Computer registers, Common bus system, Computer instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction cycle, Memory reference instructions, Input output and interrupt, complete design of basic computer.

Central Processing Unit: General register organization, control word, Stack organization, register stack, memory stack, Instruction formats — three address, two address, one address, zero address instructions, Addressing modes, Data transfer and manipulation, arithmetic, logical, bit manipulation, Program control, Reduced Instruction Set Computer RISC , CISC characteristics. Unit Review of Basics of Digital Electronics.

Devices Used in Digital Electronics. Data Representation and Data Transfer. Computer Organization I. Computer Organization II. Control Unit. Central Processing Unit. Addressing Modes. Computer Arithmetic I. Computer Arithmetic II. Memory Organization Concepts. Introduction to Parallel Processing. Unit 1: Review of Basics of Digital Electronics. After studying this unit, you will be able to:. Digital electronics is a field of computer science. It deals with devices that are used to carry out computer applications.

In digital electronics, we use two-state or binary logic. Computer uses binary number system for its operations. Digital electronics represents the two binary numbers, 1 and 0, using two voltage levels in a device called a logic gate.

Logic gates are important components of a digital circuit. A logic gate takes two inputs and generates a single output. In this unit we will discuss about the basic logic gates and their corresponding truth tables. Basically, digital data is represented, stored, and transmitted as groups of binary digits which are called bits.

The group of bits is known as binary code. Binary codes are used in computers as they allow computers to perform complex calculations quickly and efficiently. Binary codes are used in financial, commercial, and industrial applications. To understand how binary codes are applied in these fields, we first have to understand the classification of binary codes. Binary codes can be represented as numbers and letters of the alphabets as well as many special characters and control functions. They are classified as numeric or alphanumeric codes.

Numeric codes are used to represent numbers, whereas alphanumeric codes are used to represent alphabetic letters and numerals. The binary codes are classified as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. As mentioned earlier, numeric codes are used to represent numbers. The following are the numeric codes:. Weighted Binary Codes : Weighted binary codes are those which follow the positional weighting principles. In weighted codes, each position of the number represents a specific weight.

For example, in decimal code, if the number is , then the weight of 3 is , 4 is 10, and 5 is 1. In the weighted binary code, each digit has a weight of 8, 4, 2 or 1 corresponding to its position. Example: The codes , and are examples of weighted binary codes. Non-Weighted Binary Codes: Non-weighted codes do not follow the positional weighting principles.

In non-weighted codes, each digit position within the number does not have any fixed value. Example: Excess-3 and Gray codes are examples of non-weighted codes. Excess-3 codes are used to express decimal numbers. The code can be derived from the natural BCD code by adding 3 in binary to the coded number. It is used in decimal arithmetic units. The excess-3 code of in is Reflective Codes: A code is said to be reflective when the code for 9 is complement for the code for 0, 8 for 1, 7 for 2, 6 for 3, and 5 for 4.

Example: Codes and excess-3 are reflective. In code we know that the positional weights are 2, 4, 2 and 1. The following figure shows an example of reflective code where the complement of 8 is 1 and the complement of 7 is 2. Sequential Codes: Sequential codes are codes in which the succeeding code is one binary number greater than its preceding code. This assists in mathematical data manipulation. Example: and excess-3 codes are sequential codes.

Cyclic Codes: In cyclic codes, only one bit in the code changes at a time while moving from one number to the next. It is a non - weighted code, which means that the position of bit does not contain any weight. Table 1. Decimal Code to Gray Code Conversion. Decimal code. Gray code. Error Detecting Codes: Whenever data is transmitted from one point to another, there is a probability that the data may get corrupted.

In order to detect these data errors, some special codes called error detection codes are used. Error Correcting Codes: These codes not only detect errors in data, but also correct them significantly.

Error correction codes are a method by which a set of symbols can be represented such that even if any 1 bit of the representation gets accidentally flipped, we can still clearly identify the earlier symbol. Error correcting codes depend mainly on the notations and results of linear algebra. Example: Error correction using parity checking is as follows:. In parity check, an extra bit is added to the binary number to make all the digits in the binary number to sum up to an even or odd value.

When the number adds up to an even number, we call it even parity and when the number sums up to an odd number, we call it odd parity. Consider the following two binary numbers:.

Now, if we want to use even parity, we can add a parity bit to these numbers to obtain an even number as shown below:. If we want to use odd parity, we can add a parity bit to the number as follows:. Most of the modern applications use even parity.

Let us consider even parity in our example. The two binary numbers that need to be transmitted are:. The even parity. Suppose during transmission the bits get changed as follows:. We can observe that the digits in the number sum up to odd numbers. Since we are using even parity, the computer knows that there is an error in the transmission. Alphanumeric Codes : These are codes that consist of both numbers and alphabets. It is an 8-bit code which accommodates up to characters.

It is a 7-bit code, which represents different characters. These characters include 52 alphabets, which include A to Z and a to z, numbers from 0 to 9 that is, 10 numbers , 33 special characters and symbols, and 33 control characters.

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Computer Organization Books

Intended for computer science majors who want to study computer organization without a background in electrical engineering. Topics such as analog to digital conversion, CRC's, and memory organization are covered using practical terms and examples. Tag s : Computer Organization and Architecture. License : Standard Copyright License. Toggle navigation FreeTechBooks. Computer Organization and Design Fundamentals Intended for computer science majors who want to study computer organization without a background in electrical engineering. Terms and Conditions: David L.

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