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BS EN 13201-4 PDF

Cokeless Cupola Furnaces

This invention relates to metal-melting furnaces, in particular cokeless cupola furnaces, and is concerned with control of the slag. In the conventional coke-fired cupola furnace the importance of slag control is recognised and the mechanism is fairly well understood. Additionally during melting some oxidation of the metal itself and of other components present may occur, and this likewise results in materials which must be absorbed into a suitable slag so that the furnace can be operated easily. The primary function of the slag is therefore to absorb the ash in the coke and other impurities in the charge. In addition most cupola furnaces are lined with a refractory material and as this gradually wears away this material must also be absorbed into the slag.


Cokeless Cupola and Cupola Furnaces

Based on its principle, the cupola furnace is a shaft melting furnace , it is filled with fuel coke , metal charge pig iron , circulation material, scrap steel and slag -forming additives limestone from the top. In the bottom part of the furnace, combustion air blast compacted by a blower is fed into the furnace shaft by nozzles see Hot blast nozzle, Blast pressure. During this process, the counter flow principle is used to transfer heat from the combustion gases to the charge until it is melted Figs. Thus, the required energy is generated in the cupola itself, i. The quality of the fuel coke , HC coke and the combustion process itself must be reproducible since all fluctuations have an impact on the melting process.


Such plants incorporating a single long campaign cokeless cupola duplexing through electric furnaces are presently in use in Germany, Spain, Japan and Korea with further installations going ahead in Austria and Korea. Economics The economics of operating these plants are obviously of considerable interest and the reader can be assured that they have not been installed without the overall economics being attractive. The main costs involved in cokeless melting are the fuel, refractory spheres, electricity for superheating, plus lining refractory and recarburiser. These figures compare favourably with conventional coke melting and are very attractive compared with electric or rotary furnace operations.



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