Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates pp Cite as. With thirteen species Hershkovitz, , Callicebus is one of the most diverse but poorly studied genera of neotropical primates. Long-term field studies have been conducted on only two of the 13 recognized Callicebus species. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
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The Atlantic titi or masked titi Callicebus personatus is a species of titi , a type of New World monkey , endemic to Brazil. The Atlantic titi is part of the genus Callicebus which is composed of thirteen species and sixteen subspecies.
Some more recent classifications of titis recognise many more species, and split the genus into three separate genera. The C. Three subspecies of Callicebus personatus have been described in scientific literature: C. They customarily share their living area with other monkeys such as the lion tamarin and spider monkey. The three subspecies of Callicebus personatus are products of clinical differentiation when certain portions of the population are cut off from the parental stock due to an ecological barrier such as a river and are thus completely genetically isolated from one another.
The evolution of these coat colors is termed metachromism. The pigments are produced by melanocytes which deposit the pigments into the medulla of growing hair so that the hair grows with the color of that distinct pigment. The characteristic pigment of the Callicebus is eumelanin dark brown or black found in the iris, skin, and hair usually on the forehead, crown and tail. Atlantic titis are opportunistic feeders. In other words, they eat based on the abundance of food that is available to them in each season.
Their food choices are not usually very selective, but they are frugivorous , usually eating fleshy fruits, seeds, and leaves. It has been documented that they can be geophagic meaning that at times they eat soil. Various hypotheses exist for their geophagic nature.
These include the following: . Masked titis are tree monkeys. It is not customary to find them on the forest floor. It is speculated that they prefer to remain in the rainforest trees to avoid snake predation. Due to their frugivorous nature, they have rarely been observed on the ground foraging for insects or small vertebrates. Instead they prefer to remain high in the tree limbs of the dense eastern Brazilian rainforest.
This is an added advantage to the masked titis for the following reasons: . For many years, researchers believed that geophagy might be have been used by the masked titi's as a sodium supplement as their high foliage diets were quite low in sodium.
Although the soil consumed by masked titis was found to contain many different minerals in comparison to random soil samples, these minerals where not necessarily a valuable component of the titi diet. Therefore, it was concluded that soil was not a nutritionally significant portion of their diet.
However, results of the most recent studies demonstrated that the soil consumed by the monkeys contained a very low pH compared to random soil samples. Therefore, it seems geophagy is not principally used to buffer the stomach pH levels. In addition, because the clay molecule has a large flat structure that is ideal for toxin absorption, researchers also suggested that soil could serve to absorb the toxins acquired by the consumption of such a high quantity and variety of forest foliage.
Unfortunately, more research needs to be conducted on this hypothesis to test its validity as currently no studies have been conducted on the toxicity levels in the fruit eaten by the masked titis. It is also important to note that termite mound soil was preferred by the titis in addition to the ant soil. Both the ant mound soil as well as the termite mound soil perform the same function for the monkeys, however some researchers have observed that the monkeys usually tend to prefer termite mound soil to ant mound soil when given both options.
The reason for such a preference is not yet known. Regardless of the presence of humans in Brazilian forests, titi monkeys customarily venture to dwell in "disturbed" forests forests that have been cut down or invaded by humans as long as the food availability is higher than in undisturbed forests.
Their existence is completely dependent on their ability to successfully reside in disturbed forests. However, titis do not seem to be aware of the difference between a disturbed and undisturbed forest. As previously mentioned, they feed opportunistically and therefore will reside in whatever forest has the most food available. As long as food is available to them even if humans provide this food , it is feasible that the monkeys survive the deforestation of much of the Southern American rain forests.
Atlantic titis are usually monogamous they stay with one mate throughout their entire lifespan. It is difficult to distinguish between the sexes externally, however Atlantic titi family dynamics indicate that the father carries the infant at all times during the nursing.
Two major types of activity have been observed in masked titis. The first is characterized by two feeding periods separated by a relatively long resting period. The two feeding periods are in different locations in which a significant portion of the day was spent traveling to the second location to feed. The second activity pattern contained three feeding periods also separated by resting periods.
However, travel was much more evenly dispersed throughout the day in this pattern. Masked titis do have territorial displays throughout the day. The defend their territories by loud intergroup vocalizations to other groups of monkeys and to other animals in the general area. Additionally, all titi monkeys have "Dawn Calls" in the mornings in which the male and female usually duet the same song.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geoffroy in Humboldt , Wilson, D. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Frontiers in Zoology. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. International Journal of Primatology. The International Journal of Conservation. Extant species of family Pitheciidae. White-faced saki P.
Black bearded saki C. Bald uakari C. White-eared titi P. Barbara Brown's titi C. Lucifer titi C. Hidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Pithecia Saki monkeys White-faced saki P. Plecturocebus Titis White-eared titi P.
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The family group consisted of adult male and female, three juvenile-subadult offspring, and an infant carried by the father. Two patterns of activity were identified: one in which two major feeding peaks were separated by a single long rest period and a relatively long travel distance between the two major feeding sites; and a second in which three major feeding peaks were separated by rest periods and travel was more evenly dispersed throughout the day. Callicebus personatus was similar to C. All three species are known to live in monogamous family units with parental care by the adult male, defend territories with loud intergroup vocalizations, and feed primarily upon a small number of widely dispersed fruits. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The Atlantic titi or masked titi Callicebus personatus is a species of titi , a type of New World monkey , endemic to Brazil. The Atlantic titi is part of the genus Callicebus which is composed of thirteen species and sixteen subspecies. Some more recent classifications of titis recognise many more species, and split the genus into three separate genera. The C.
What is Humane Education? Orangutans Gibbons. Galagos or Bushbabies Lemurs Pottos. Lorises Tarsiers. Donate Volunteer. Dwelling mostly in thickets and vine tangles of the lower forest canopy, masked titis have also been observed living in banana tree groves. Size, Weight, and Lifespan: About the size of a bunny rabbit, the male of the species is only slightly larger than the female.